• Ayesha Asghar Gill, Dr. Fauzia Janjua
Keywords: Experiential meta-function, grammatical intricacy, lexical density, lexico-grammatical, Nominalization


This paper examines the effectiveness of the Reading to Learn (R2L) approach to teaching argumentative writing skills to undergraduate Pakistani English language learners’ (PELLs) ; as researches (Ilyas, Iqbal, & Fazal, 2015) have found out that PELLs face the problem of integrating perception and lexico-grammar on a given issue to convince readers while writing it. The study experimented with R2L genre pedagogy with a two-group pre and posttest design on a sample of 36 students in each group. The functional analysis of Pretest revealed that PELLs constructed a viewpoint with inappropriate transitivity selection and low lexical density. They ignored nominalization to develop chains of reasoning within the clause. After a four-month intervention, the posttest analysis showed that the performance of the experimental group has significantly improved. Our experimentation and analysis provide a concrete pedagogic assessment of R2L genre pedagogy in the Pakistani context that can help teachers to develop the argumentative writing skills of their students.


Christe. (1999). Pedagogy and shaping of Conscience: Linguistics and Social Process. London: Cassell.
Christie. (2006). Literacy teaching and current debates over literacy. In R. M. Whittaker, O'Donnell; Anne McCabe (Ed.), Language and Literacy: Functional Approaches (pp. 45-65). London: Continuum.
Coffin, C. (2004). Arguing about how the world is or how the world should be : the role of srgument in IELTS tests. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 3(3), 229-246.
Cope, B., & Kalantzis, M. E. (1993). The Powers of Literacy: A Genre Approach to Teaching Writing. Pittsburg: University of Pittsburg Press.
Derewianka. (2003). Grammatical Metaphor in the Transition to Adolesence Grammatical Metaphore: Views from Systemic Functional Linguistics (pp. 185-220). philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishings.
Eggins. (2004a). An introduction to Systemic Functional Linguistics (2nd ed.). New York: Continuum.
Eggins. (2004b). Introduction to systemic functional linguistics (2nd Edition). Great Britain: MPG Books Ltd: Bodmin , Cornwall.
Emilia, E. (2005). A critical genre based approach to teaching academic writing in tertiary EFL context in Indonesia. (PhD Thesis), The University of Melbourne, Australia.
Gebhard, Harman, & Seger. (2007). Reclaiming recess in urban schools: The potential of systemic functional linguistics for ELLs and their teachers. Language Arts, 5(84), 419-430.
Halliday. (2001). Literacy and Linguistics : relationships between spoken and Written Language. In A. Burns & C. Coffin (Eds.), Analysing English in a Global Context (pp. 181-193). London: Routledge.
Halliday (2002). Spoken and Written modes of meaning. London: Continuum.
Halliday , & Martin , J. R. (1993). Writing Science: Literacy and Discursive Power. London: Falmer Press.
Halliday, & Matthiessen. (1999). Halliday, M., Construing Experience Through Meaning: A Language-based Approach to Cognition. London/New York: Continuum.
Halliday, & Matthiessen. (2014). An introduction to functional grammar. New York: Routledge.
Hanafiah , R., & Yusuf , M. (2016, 12-13). Lexical density and grammatical intricacy in linguistic thesis abstract: A qualitative content analysis. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 1st EEIC in conjunction with the 2nd RGRS-CAPEU between Sultan Idris Education University and Syiah Kuala University, , Banda Aceh, .
Hasan. (1996). Ways of saying: ways of meaning Selected papers of Ruqaiya Hasan edited by Cloran, C., Butt, D. & Williams, G. (Open Linguistics Series). London Cassel.
Hirvela , A. (2017). Argumentation and Second language writing: Are we missing the boat? Journal of Sceond Language writing, 36, 69-74.
Hoeken , H., & Hustinx , L. (2009). When is Statistical Evidence Superior to Anecdotal evidence in Supporting Probability Claims? The Role of Argument Type. . Human Communication Research,, 35(4), 491-510.
Hoey, M. (2009). What can linguistics tell us about writing skills? In G. Forey & G. Thompson (Eds.), Text type and texture (pp. 175-190). London: Equinox Publishing Ltd.
Humphery, S., & Macnaught, L. (2011). Revisiting Joint Construction in the tertiary context. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 34(1), 98-116.
Hyland, K. (2003). Second Language Writing. London: Cambridge University Press.
Hyland, K. (2007). Genre pedagogy: Language, literacy and L2 writing instruction. journal of Second Language Writing, 16, 148-164.
Ilyas, M., Iqbal, M., & Fazal, S. (2015). Post/Graduate Academic Writing Problems: A Pakistani Case Image of research Literacy and writing Pedagogies for Masters and Doctoral Writers (pp. 389-406). Leiden: Brill Koninklijke.
Iqbal, N., Mehmood, u. H., & Qasim, A. (2005). Assessing Quality of English Teachers at Sceondary Level in Punjab,Pakistan. Journal of Elementary Education, Vol,25. No.1, 75-99.
Javed, Juan, & Nazli. (2013). A study of students' assessment in writing skills of english language. online submission, 6(2), 129-144.
Jillani, W. (2004). Conditions Under Which English is Taught In Pakistan: An Applied Linguistic Perspective. Sarid, 1-8.
Johansson , V. (2008). Lexical diversity and lexical density in speech and writing: A developmental perspective. Lund University: Lund University Press.
Knapp , P., & Watkins , M. (1994). 'The genre of arguing', Context Text Grammar: Teaching the Genre and grammar of School Writing in infants and Primary Classrooms. 118-137.
Kongpetch, S. (2006). Using a genre based approach to teach writing to Thai students: a case study. Prospect : Australian Journal of TESOL, 21(2), 3-33.
Liardet , C. L. (2016). Grammatical metaphor: Distinguishing success. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 109-118.
Macken-Horarik. (2002). "Something to Shoot for" : A systemic functional approach to teaching genre in secondary school science. In M. J. Ann (Ed.), Genre in the classroom: Multiple perspectives. Mahwah , Newjersey: Lawrence Eralbaum Associates Publishers.
Maneli , M. (1994). Perelman's New Rhetoric as Philosophy and methodology for the next century. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Mann , W. C., Matthiessen , C. M. I. M., & Thompson , S. A. (1992). Rhetorical structure theory and text analysis In W. C. Mann & S. A. Thompson (Eds.), Discourse Description Diverse Linguistic Analyses of a Fund Raising Text. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Martin. (1985). Factual Writing: Exploring and challenging Social Reality. Waurn Ponds , Victoria: Deakin University.
Martin. (1989b). Technically and abstraction: Language for the creation of specialized texts. In C. F (Ed.), Writing in School (pp. 36-44). Geelong: Victoria, Deaken University Press.
Martin. (1991). Nominalization in Science and humanities: distilling knowledge and scoffolding text Functional and Systemic Linguistics: Approaches and Use (pp. 307-338). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Martin (1993). Technology, bureaucracy and schooling : Discourse resources and control. Cultural Dynamics, 6(1), 84-130.
Martin. (2000). Beyond Exchange: Appraisal System in English In S. In Hunston & G. Thompson (Eds.), Evaluation in Text : Authorial Stance and the Construction of Discourse (pp. 142-177). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Martin (2001a). Language , register and genre. In A. Burns & C. Coffin (Eds.), Analysing English in a Global Context: A Reader (pp. 149-166). London: Routledge.
Martin. (2008). genre and Language learning: A social simotic perspect. Linguistics and Education, 20(10-21).
Martin, & Rose. (2008). Genre Relations : Mapping Culture. London ; Oakville, CT . Equinox Publishing Ltd.
Martin , J., & Rothery , J. (1986a). What a functional approach to the writing task can show teachers about 'good writing'. In B. Couture (Ed.), Functional approaches to writing: research perspective (pp. 241-265). Norwood: NJ: Ablex.
Martin , J. R. (1997). Analyzing genre: Functional parameters. In F. Christe & J. R. Martin (Eds.), Genre and Institution: Social Processes in the workplace and school (pp. 3-39). London: Pinter.
Mohan, B., Leung, C., & Slater, T. (2010). Assessing Language and Content: A Functional Perspective. English Publications, 219-242.
Painter , C., Derewianka , & Torr, J. (2007). From Microfunction to metaphor: learning language and learning through language. In R. Hassan , C. M. I. M. Matthiessen , & J. J. Webster (Eds.), Continuing Discourse on Language: A Functional Perspective (pp. 563-588). London: Equinox Publishing Limited.
Pessoa , S., Thomson , D. M., & Rayan , T. M. (2017). Emergent argument: A functional approach to analyzing student challenges with the argument genre. journal of Second Language Writing, 38, 42-55.
Petty , R. E., & Cacioppo , J. T. (1986). Communication and Persuasion: Central and Peripheral Routes to Attitude Change, . New York: Springer.
Schleppegrell. (2004). The language of Schooling : A functional linguistics perspective. Mahwah , NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Schleppegrell , & Go , A. (2007). Analyzing the writing of English learners : A functional approach. Language Arts, 84(6), 529-538.
Swales , J. M. (1990). Genre Analysis: English in Academic and Research Settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ventola , E. (1996). Packing and Unpacking of information in academic texts. In E. Ventola & A. Mauranen (Eds.), Academic Writing : Intercultural and textual issues. Amsterdam: John Benjamins B . V .